1. Professional positions in advancing and consolidating democracy:

  • Executive Director of the Netherlands Institute for Multi-party Democracy (NIMD) in The Hague, The Netherlands (2002 – 2011);
  • Director of the Capacity Building Programme for Sustainable Democracy at International IDEA (Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance) in Stockholm, Sweden (1996 – 2002);
  • Senior Public Affairs Consultant in Brussels.  Independent adviser EU on issues of democracy, good governance, human rights and development;
  • Secretary General European NGOs working with EU to implement programme in support of democratic movement in South Africa and Namibia in Brussels, Belgium (1988 – 1994);

Voluntary positions: 

  • Chairperson of the European Partnership for Democracy (EPD) (from 2008 onwards);
  • Member of the Steering Committees of the World Movement for Democracy (WMD) and of the NGO platform of the Community of Democracies (ISC);

2. Europe agenda:

  • Advise and publication on European Endowment for Democracy (EED), current;
  • Advice and input on EU Council Conclusions on Democracy Support, 2009;
  • Founder European Partnership for Democracy (EPD) in 2008, (www.epd.eu);
  • Co-edited publication of Democracy: Europe’s Core Value? in 2007;
  • Report for European Parliament, No lasting Peace and Prosperity without Democracy and Human Rights (2005);
  • The Hague Action Agenda to enhance the European Profile in Democracy Support (2004);
  • Publication of Dialogue for Democratic Development, Policy Options for a Renewed ACP-EU Partnership, 1999;
  • Report on Election Observation in cooperation with EU, (ECDPM 1995);
  • Report for the European Commission Promoting Democracy’s Development (1994);

3. Sub-Sahara Africa

  • Support for the democratic movements of South Africa and Namibia in their transitions to democracy (1988 – 1994);  Cooperation with IDASA (www.idasa.org) EISA (www.eisa.org.za) and CPS (cps.org.za) on democracy in South Africa and on the African continent (2002 – 2010);
  • Publication of At the Frontline of Human Rights, assessment for EU and the UNHCHR of the human rights observer mission in Rwanda, 1995;
  • Feasibility studies EU Programme in support of Civil Society Development in Ethiopia in Ethiopia (1995 – 1997);
  • Democracy assessment in Burkina Faso resulting in report Democracy in Burkina Faso (1997) and initiative to establish the Centre pour la Gouvernance Démocratique – Burkina Faso Centre (CGD) (www.cgd-igd.org);
  • Democracy assessment in Nigeria resulting in report Democracy in Nigeria – Continuing Dialogue(s) for Nation-Building (2000);
  • Facilitating political dialogue and institutional development of political parties in Mozambique (2002 – 20101);
  • Facilitating the establishment and programme development of the Zimbabwe Institute (ZI) (www.zimbabweinstitute.org) in support of the complex transformation process in Zimbabwe (2003 onwards).  Board member of the Zimbabwe – Europe Partnership for Democracy foundation, ZEPAD (www.zepad.org) (2010 onwards), supporting the participation of civil society in the constitutional review process;
  • Support for political party development in Ghana (2002 – 2011) in cooperation with the Ghanaian Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA), (www.ieagh.org) contributing to pro-active conflict prevention, enhanced performance political parties, public policy debates, peaceful alternation of power, consensus about a Democratic Consolidation Strategy Paper (DCSP), a transition Bill and a peaceful constitutional review process.  The facilitation has also extended to Ghanaian political leaders successfully sharing experience about peaceful co-existence and political reform processes with counterparts in conflict- ridden countries in West-Africa and in Uganda;
  • Support for political party development in Mali (2002 – 2011) including facilitating the establishment of the Malian Centre pour le Dialogue Inter-Partis et la Démocratie (CMDID) (www.cmdid.org).  The programme resulted in electoral reforms, enhanced participation of women in the political process and dialogue between political parties and civil society organizations;
  • Facilitating political dialogue in Zambia (1997 – 1998 and 2002 – 2011) and establishment of the Zambian Centre for Inter-party Dialogue (ZCID), contributing to institutional development of political parties, political party platforms and brokering agreement about a constitutional review process;
  • Supporting institutional development of political parties in Tanzania (2002 – 2010) and facilitating the establishment of the Tanzania Centre for Democracy (TCD) (www.cmdid.org) the platform for political dialogue between the governing and opposition parties in Tanzania (and Zanzibar).  Outcomes of the programme in the field of electoral reform and exploring the options for needed constitutional reforms;
  • Political dialogue has also been established in Malawi (2002 – 2011) and the establishment of the Malawian Center for Multi-party Democracy (MCMD) facilitated.  The dialogue has focussed on improving the electoral process and on capacity building for conflict-prevention;
  • Political dialogue has been facilitated in Kenya (2004 – 2011) after the Moi era ended in 2002.  The dialogue resulted in the establishment of the Center for Multi-party Democracy Kenya (CMD-K) (www.cmd-kenya.org) with became instrumental in restoring peace after the presidential elections of 2007 ended in wide-spread violence.  CMD-K brokered a wide coalition of political parties, civil society, women and professional organization in Kenya to restore peace and justice and work toward the long awaited new Kenyan constitution which was promulgated in August 2010.  The focus since is on the implementation of the constitution and the continuation of the reconciliation process of communities affected by past political violence and injustice in Kenya;
  • Facilitation of political dialogue in Burundi (2008 – 2011) in cooperation with the Burundi Leadership Training Programme (BLTP) and initiation of democracy education programme;
  • An agreement between the governing party and opposition political parties was brokered during 2009 – 2011 in Uganda and the subsequent establishment of the Inter-party Organization for Dialogue (IPOD).  It has resulted in a number of electoral reforms and in an on-going spectrum wide dialogue process;
  • The initiative was taken to establish an African Regional Programme (ARP) for governing and opposition parties in Sub-Sahara Africa to regularly meet to share experiences in democratic reform process, the institutional development of political parties, and on making democracy deliver development;

4. Arab region

  • Facilitation of dialogue about democratic development in the Arab world during 1998 and 1998, including Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Yemen.  The dialogue resulted in the production of the report Democracy in the Arab world (1999);
  • Mission to Egypt in August 2011, resulting in article Egypt’s unfolding transitional agenda;

5. Asia 

  • Democracy assessment of the democratic reform process in Indonesia, titled: Democratization in Indonesia:  An Assessment (2000).  From 2002 – 2011, a code of conduct between political parties during elections has been facilitated, the establishment of a democracy schools programme in different regions of Indonesia and support for the establishment of the Komunitas Indonesia untuk Demokrasi (KID) (www.komunitasdemokrasi.or.id)which successfully managed the democracy schools programme, and facilitation of a platform of the major political parties in Indonesia for regular dialogue about the consolidation of the democratic reform process;
  • Lecture in New Dehli, India, on India’s role as a rising democracy in world wide democracy support (2007);
  • Democracy Assessment of the Nepal resulting in report titled:  Consolidating Democracy in Nepal(1997);

6. Latin America

  • Assessment of the democratic transition process in Guatemala, resulting in report Democracy in Guatemala:  The Mission for an Entire People (1998).  Cooperation with the Forum of Political Parties in Guatemala and the Guatemalan Parliament on consolidating the 1996 Peace Accord through democratic institutional reforms (2002 – 2011)    Key instrument in the programme was the nationally agreed Shared National Agenda (SNA) and the subsequent shared agenda’s at the local levels to increase accountability.  Through the reforms the participation of the indigenous population and women in the political process has advanced, a social-economic council was formed and legislative reforms (including the functioning of parliament itself) pursued;
  • Support for the establishment by the political parties of Bolivia of Fundacíon Boliviana para Democrácia Multipartidaria (FBDM) (http://www.fbdm.org.bo) (2002 – 2011).  The foundation serves as institutional dialogue platform to facilitate peaceful democratic reforms in Bolivia, including the process resulting in a new constitution and the decentralization process.  The successful introduction of a biometric voter register and identity cards has also been supported;
  • Facilitation and support of the Agora Democrática programme in Equador (2007 – 2011) which contributed to the process that resulted in the new constitution, a new electoral law, political parties law and enhanced women participation;
  • Support for political dialogue in Surinam (2002 – 2010) and establishment of the Democracy Unit at the Anton de Kom University;

7. Europe

  • Assessment of the challenges to democracy following the Dayton Agreement of 1995, tittled:  Beyond Election 96:  A two-year Window of Opportunity for Democracy – Proposals for the Transition towards Peace and Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996);
  • Assessment of the challenges and obstacles for democratic reform in Romania, titled:  Democracy in Romania (1997);
  • Institutional development of political party programme in Georgia (2006 – 2011), inter-active needs assessment, inter-party dialogue and contribution to constitutional reform process;
  • Supporting the democrat transition in Moldova (2009 onwards) through capacity building of civil society and facilitating dialogue between government and civil society;
  • In Armenia (2009 onwards) support is directed at strengthening the capacities of Armenian civil society organizations and at opening space for interaction between civil society organizations and the Armenian government;

8. Contributions to generic publications

  • A Framework for Democratic Party-Building, (NIMD, 2004);
  • Democracy: Europe’s Core Value? on the european profile in worldwide democracy assistance, Eburon (2007).  ISBN: 9789059721340;
  • Writing Autobiographies of Nations, a comparative analysis of constitutional reform processes (NIMD, 2009);